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Information Literacy: Teaching & Learning: Frame 2: Information Creation As A Process


Information in any format is produced to convey a message and is shared via a selected delivery method. The iterative processes of researching, creating, revising, and disseminating information vary, and the resulting product reflects these differences.

The information creation process could result in a range of information formats and modes of delivery, so experts look beyond format when selecting resources to use. The unique capabilities and constraints of each creation process as well as the specific information need determine how the product is used. Experts recognize that information creations are valued differently in different contexts, such as academia or the workplace. Elements that affect or reflect on the creation, such as a pre- or post-publication editing or reviewing process, may be indicators of quality. The dynamic nature of information creation and dissemination requires ongoing attention to understand evolving creation processes. Recognizing the nature of information creation, experts look to the underlying processes of creation as well as the final product to critically evaluate the usefulness of the information. Novice learners begin to recognize the significance of the creation process, leading them to increasingly sophisticated choices when matching information products with their information needs.

Video Introduction

Objectives / Activities

Learners who are developing their information literate abilities

  • are inclined to seek out characteristics of information products that indicate the underlying creation process;
  • value the process of matching an information need with an appropriate product;
  • accept that the creation of information may begin initially through communicating in a range of formats or modes;
  • accept the ambiguity surrounding the potential value of information creation expressed in emerging formats or modes;
  • resist the tendency to equate format with the underlying creation process;
  • understand that different methods of information dissemination with different purposes are available for their use.

Learners who are developing their information literate abilities

  • articulate the capabilities and constraints of information developed through various creation processes;
  • assess the fit between an information product’s creation process and a particular information need;
  • articulate the traditional and emerging processes of information creation and dissemination in a particular discipline;
  • recognize that information may be perceived differently based on the format in which it is packaged;
  • recognize the implications of information formats that contain static or dynamic information;
  • monitor the value that is placed upon different types of information products in varying contexts;
  • transfer knowledge of capabilities and constraints to new types of information products;
  • develop, in their own creation processes, an understanding that their choices impact the purposes for which the information product will be used and the message it conveys.

Some possible learning objectives:

  • Students will be able to differentiate between a magazine and a scholarly periodical.
  • Students will evaluate information with set criteria.
  • Students will understand the variety of information formats and can conduct searches for various formats.
  • Students will be able to articulate the purposes of various types of information as well as their distinguishing characteristics
  • Students will be able to distinguish between format and method of access, understanding that these are separate entities
  • Students will be able to identify which types of information best meet particular information needs
  1. Assign students to identify several different applicable information sources that arise from different creation processes, and to communicate the unique values of each. (in collaboration with instructor and course assignment) .
    For example:

  2. Ask students to identify the format of the sources they find for a given research project and articulate why the chosen formats are appropriate for the information need.
  3. Ask students to find sources about the same topic in two divergent formats, e.g. newspaper movie review and literary journal movie review or scholarly article and a researcher’s blog. Have students compare and contrast the type of information found in each format, as well as articulate the processes underlying the creation of each format.
  4. Ask students to transform information they have created in one format to another format, and to write a reflection on what they needed to consider as they went through the process.
  5. This idea comes from an online instructor at the University of Maryland. He has drafted the following prompts for an online, asynchronous discussion thread. The students are more or less 1st-year, adult learners:

6. Movie Views and Reviews:

7. Learning activity used in the 10/28/2015 faculty forum:

8.  This Chicago Tribune  located by Dr. Cindy McCullagh is an excellent illustration of "Information Creation As A Process":

Evaluating Digital Content

Assessment Ideas


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