|Length||Longer articles, providing in-depth analysis of topics||Shorter articles, providing broader overviews of topics|
|Authorship||Author usually an expert or specialist in the field; name and credentials always provided||Author usually a staff writer or a journalist, name and credentials often not provided|
|Language/Audience||Written in the jargon of the field for scholarly readers, professors, researchers or students||Written in non-technical language for anyone to understand|
|Format/Structure||Articles usually structured, may include: abstract, literature review, methodology, results, conclusion, bibliography||Articles do not necessarily follow a specific format or structure|
|Special Features||Illustrations that support the text, such as tables of statistics, graphs, maps, or photographs||Illustrations with glossy or color photographs, usually for advertising purposes|
|Editors||Articles usually reviewed and critically evaluated by a board of experts in the field (refereed or peer reviewed)||Articles are not evaluated by experts in the field, but by editors on staff|
|Credits||A bibliography (works cited) and/or footnotes always provided to document research||A bibliography (works cited) is usually not provided, although names of reports or references may be mentioned in the text|
Remember: Not everything published in an academic journal is considered scholarly. Academic journals contain book reviews and opinion pieces such as letters and editorials. These items do not go through the jury process that the articles do.
It is also important to understand that just because something is "Popular" does not mean that it will always be unacceptable for your work. Use your best judgment and, when in doubt, ask your instructor.
Trade journals may be appropriate for some types of academic work, especially for Business students. However, they are not scholarly works. Typically, trade journals provide practical industry information, use industry jargon, and are specific to a particular industry. Some examples of trade journals are: Architectural Review, Planning, Building Stone Magazine, etc.